Security Council 2045
Topic: The Question of Desertification in China
Since 2020, the world has been losing 15 million hectares of land to desertification each year. This has resulted in food and water scarcity, deforestation (in non-desert areas for agricultural expansion), ecological migration, and competition and conflict over resources. In 2045, 135 million people have been displaced by desertification worldwide. One of the countries most affected by this issue is China. At its north is the Gobi Desert, the fastest growing desert in the world.
Beginning in the 1950s, the Chinese government has fought against large-scale desertification, brought about by a frenzy to develop cities and infrastructure where farms and natural ecosystems once stood. Increased wind erosion spread of deserts into areas once protected by vegetation.
Loss of land has forced many people to abandon their homes. Chinese ecological migrants once numbering 30 000 have grown to 1.5 million. These migrants move from rural desert areas to larger cities, but as both deserts and significant cities expand, the borders between them lessen. Desert sandstorms that can occur up to 20 times per month harming crops and agriculture even reach Beijing. Additionally, drought and water scarcity effect much of the Chinese population. Lack of water and arable land have resulted in increased territorial disputes between China and its neighbours.
China has implemented a “Great Green Wall” This shelterbelt, begun in 1978 has seen over 125 billion trees planted along the 2800 mile border of northern China’s deserts. Unfortunately, due to overcrowding a lack of maintenance of the trees once planted, over 60% of the trees die within their first year.
As a Security Council, you must work together to consider the issues of rehabilitation of degraded land, the influx of ecological migrants, water access, and international tensions in China as a result of desertification. Open dialogue and creative solutions will help not on China, but countries throughout the world facing desertification.
Note: The P5 countries on the Security Council 2045 include Russia, USA, China, Germany, and South Africa